When a pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behaviour lasting at least 6 months, during which four or more of the following are present:

  • often loses temper
  • often argues with adults
  • often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults requests or rules
  • often deliberately annoys people
  • often blames others for his or her mistakes or behaviour
  • is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
  • is often angry or resentful
  • is often spiteful and vindictive

Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behaviour occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level.

  1. The disturbance in behaviour causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic or occupational functioning.
  2. The behaviours do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder.
  3. Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and if the individual is aged 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.